Useful information about Batumi and Georgia
Variety testing of citrus crops in Georgia
Varietal testing of orange, mandarin and grapefruit is carried out in 10 varietal testing plots in various soil and climatic conditions of the subtropical zone of the republic. 18 cultivars of orange, 12 & mdash; tangerine and 9 grapefruit varieties.
Oranges of local varieties (Local large-fruited, Kelasursky, Best Sukhumi and Adjara seedless), Soviet selection varieties (Firstborn, Korolek 100, Korolek 15, Washington Navel No. 3, Smooth-headed), foreign (Washington Navel, accepted as standard, Thompson Navel are tested) , Gamlin, King of Neapolitan).
In the colder regions of the subtropical zone of Georgia (on the Van and Nakif varietal plots), oranges were grown in creeping form. In all cultivar sections except Gonia (Batumi region), oranges suffered from frosts during cold winters. For example, at the Lagodekhsky and Vansky cultivar sites, all plantings were completely frozen out; in Maharadzevsky, Dzhelevsky (Ghechchkorsky district) and Nakifsky (Tsalendkhshksky district) & mdash; trees of oranges of all sorts periodically were severely frozen and lost their entire crown, then they grew, but did not bear fruit; in Poti & mdash; in oranges, 2 • 3-year-old branches were systematically frosted, and these plantations also did not produce crops; on the Gagra, Kokhorsky (Gali district), Chakvinsky (Kobuletsky district) varietal plots in severe winters, oranges frosted leaves and annual branches, but from these damage the plants quickly recovered and yielded crops.
Absolute minimum air temperatures at the variety sections during winter at the Vansky variety section reached mdash; 13.2, at Dzholevsky & mdash; 11, at Kokhorsky & mdash; 8.2, at Makharadze, Lagodekhsky and Potiysky & mdash; 6. B. In the Chakvinsky variety section, the temperature dropped to m 6.5 and in Lagodekhsky to 9 9.8.
According to the Chakvinsky and Poti cultivar sites, the oranges of the Pervenets, Korolek 100, and Smooth-skinned varieties were least damaged by frosts, Adzhar seedless and Thompson Navel were most frost-bitten. The remaining varieties occupied an intermediate position.
On the Gagra, Kokhorsky, Dzhelevsky and Nakifsky cultivar plots, Gamlin oranges and less than the Firstborn are more susceptible to frost damage. On the Kokhorsky cultivar, Pervenets oranges had only 20% of trees that were easily damaged (not exceeding 1 point) by frost, despite the fact that in winter the temperature here reached -8.2.
Varieties of oranges Pervenets and in other varietal testing plots, oranges were isolated varieties as it turned out to be more frost-resistant - the most fruitful and early ripening, with good quality fruits
The oranges of the Gamlin and Gladkokory varieties, which are zoned for the Batumi and Kobulet districts, turned out to be more fruitful. Good yield stands out Local large-fruited variety.
Oranges of the Korolek 100 variety bear fruit in the third year after planting. Harvest it slightly below the standard, but since it has a dwarf crown, up to 1000 trees can be planted on 1 ha. With this planting, the gross yield of fruits per 1 ha will be much higher. This variety is zoned for the Batumi and Kobulet districts.
On the Kokhorsky and Gagra cultivar plots, the first productive variety is Pervenets. On the Gonia variety section, he also gives a good harvest & mdash; 156 centners of oranges per 1 ha (26% higher than the standard variety).
Oranges of the varieties Pervenets and Gamlin (which took the second place in productivity) are zoned for the citrus zone of the Gali and Ochamchir districts.
When analyzing the chemical composition of oranges, it was found that the content of sugar and vitamin C in fruits depends not only on the variety, but also on the conditions and place of cultivation of the orange.
Preliminary results from the variety test show that there are areas in Georgia where oranges produce good yields. However, it should be noted that all available varieties of oranges are not ripe enough and their fruits do not fully ripen in Georgia. Selection and testing institutions need to intensify work on the breeding of earlier ripe varieties of orange.
Varietal testing of mandarin started at all varietal sites. Three varieties were studied: Unshiu broadleaf (accepted as standard), Cavan-Vase and Silverhill. In subsequent years, planted tangerines varieties: Clementia, three nucellar seedlings of the Sukhumi experimental station under the numbers, varieties Pioneer-A-80, Sochi 23, Krasnodar 83, Black Sea 320 and Skorospelka & mdash; clone mandarin unshiu.
Mandarin plantations on most of the cultivar plots died because they were planted on cold microvarieties; The fruiting plantations of the mandarin were preserved only at the Chakvinsky, Potiysky, Kokhorsky and Gagra cultivar sections. Of all the tested varieties that have entered into commercial bearing, the most harvested is Unshiu broadleaf. In terms of fruit quality, there was no sharp difference between the varieties.
By early maturity, the Skorospelka variety is distinguished, the fruits of which, according to the preliminary test, ripen for almost a month
before the fruits of the Unshiu variety, broadleaf. This variety was bred by the head of the Chakvinsky variety section O. E. Megrelishvili.
The first varietal test planting of grapefruit was planted in 1951. The following varieties were studied: Duncan (accepted as standard), Foster, seedless march, Natsu Mikan and Sheddock pear-shaped.
Frosts caused serious damage to grapefruit stands in almost all cultivar plots. They are well preserved only on the Goni, Poti and Kokhor variety sections and yielded fruit. Based on observations, it was found that grapefruit varieties do not have significant differences in frost resistance, with the exception of the Sheddock pear-shaped variety, the plants of which are less frosted. More fruitful were the varieties Mars seedless and Natsu-Mikan. By the content of sugar and vitamin C in fruits, there was not much difference between the varieties.
The fruits of the varieties Duncan, seedless march are very juicy, pleasant taste, bitter. Sheddock pear-shaped fruits are very
tasty, bitterness contains less than the fruits of other varieties, but they also have less sugar and vitamin C. The fruits of the Natsu Mikana variety are bitter and least pleasant in taste.
Thus, in the process of variety testing, a number of varieties of citrus crops were identified that, under the conditions of Georgia, subject to the necessary agricultural technology and proper placement in subtropical regions, have high yields, are winter hardy, early ripening and have good fruit quality.
Propagation and introduction into production of zoned varieties should occur as planned. The starting material of many varieties is available in small quantities. Therefore, first of all, it is necessary to create uterine gardens of zoned varieties and to propagate them widely through nurseries.
The introduction of zoned varieties into production will significantly increase the gross harvest of citrus fruits and the profitability of plantings.